The Italian, who took over in November 2021, launched into a rant about the club before the international break following a 3-3 draw at Southampton.
He will be replaced by his assistant Cristian Stellini until the end of the season.
Conte leaves with Spurs fourth in the Premier League table, but only two points above fifth-placed Newcastle who have two games in hand on the London side in the race for Champions League qualification.
“We have 10 Premier League games remaining and we have a fight on our hands for a Champions League place,” Tottenham chairman Daniel Levy said in a statement.
“We all need to pull together. Everyone has to step up to ensure the highest possible finish for our club and amazing, loyal supporters.”
Stellini previously stood in for Conte on the touchline this season when the 53-year-old was recovering from gallbladder surgery.
Former Spurs midfielder Ryan Mason, who was briefly interim boss in 2021, will take over as assistant coach.